[Easttimorstudies] Recently published papers on ET - Part II of 2

Jennifer Drysdale jenster at cres10.anu.edu.au
Fri Apr 21 08:57:16 EST 2006

Journal of Social Issues
Volume 62 Page 173  - March 2006
Volume 62 Issue 1

Political Psychology of Nonviolent Democratic Transitions in Southeast Asia
Cristina Jayme Montiel1*

This research examined social psychological 
aspects of nonviolent democratic transitions in 
Southeast Asia at the close of the 20th century. 
Researchers interviewed prodemocracy activists 
who participated in the Philippines' People's 
Power Revolution, Cambodia's Dhammayietra 
(Buddhist Walk for Peace), and East Timor's peace 
and liberation movement. Sets of open-ended 
vernacular questions were custom-built to fit 
each country's unique transition to democracy. In 
addition, the author used as a data source her 
personal experiences in the Philippines as a 
leader of street politics during People's Power. 
Findings show similar social psychological 
factors across all three 
politically-transformative episodes in Southeast 
Asia. Shared characteristics include a history of 
systemic violence, loosening up of the 
authoritarian regime, violence toward the 
prodemocracy activists, spiritual orientations of 
social commitments, networking-mobilizing skills 
used to confront an authoritarian state, building 
a social infrastructure to produce massive force, 
and conscientizing for active nonviolence.


Sexually Transmitted Infections 2006;82:88-93
© 2006 by 
Publishing Group Ltd

Basing policy on evidence: low HIV, STIs, and 
risk behaviour in Dili, East Timor argue for more focused interventions

E Pisani1, H Purnomo3, A Sutrisna3, A Asy2, M 
Zaw3, C Tilman2, H Bull3 and G Neilsen1

1 Family Health International, Asia Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Ministry of Health, Republic of East Timor
3 Family Health International, East Timor Country Office, Dili, East Timor

Correspondence to:
Elizabeth Pisani
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 
Keppel Street, London, UK; <mailto:pisani at ternyata.org>pisani at ternyata.org

Background: East Timor is a newly independent, 
poor nation with many internally displaced people 
and foreign peace keeping forces. Similarities 
with Cambodia, which now has Asia’s worst HIV 
epidemic, caused donors to earmark money for HIV 
prevention in East Timor, but no data were 
available to plan appropriate programmes.

Objectives: To determine levels of infection with 
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections 
(STIs) and associated risk behaviours in Dili, 
East Timor, in order to guide resource allocation 
and appropriate prevention and care strategies.

Methods: In mid-2003, a cross sectional survey of 
female sex workers, men who have sex with men 
(MSM), taxi drivers, and soldiers was conducted. 
Participants provided biological specimens and 
all answered structured questionnaires.

Results: HIV prevalence was 3% among female sex 
workers (3/100), 0.9% among MSM (1/110), and zero 
in the other groups. All the HIV infected sex 
workers reported sex with foreign clients. 
Partner turnover reported by all groups was among 
the lowest in Asia, so was condom use. Access to 
basic HIV prevention services, including condoms 
and STI services, was extremely low in all groups.

Conclusions: A few sex workers are infected with 
HIV in East Timor, but the virus is not 
circulating widely among their clients, and 
sexual networking is limited. The risk of a 
generalised HIV epidemic in East Timor is 
minimal. HIV can be contained by the provision of 
basic services to the small minority of the 
population at highest risk, preserving resources 
for other health and development needs.

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