[TimorLesteStudies] Four Recent articles
jenster at cres10.anu.edu.au
Mon Dec 4 12:16:26 EST 2006
Balancing justice and reconciliation in East Timor
Critical Asian Studies
Volume 38, Number 3 / September 2006, pp 271 302
As East Timor emerges from a long Indonesian
nightmare, it is seeking to balance the agendas
of justice and reconciliation. The verdict on
justice for East Timor is one of disappointment.
The main obstacle to accountability is Indonesia,
abetted by an international community that seeks
its assistance in the war on terror. East
Timor's leaders have emphasized reconciliation
while promoting a healing process and good
governance. Recent violence reveals just how
difficult this task remains. The hybrid tribunal
established in East Timor by the UN was once
heralded as an important innovation in
transitional justice, avoiding the high cost and
lengthy proceedings of other international
tribunals. However, the tribunal has been unable
to hold accountable those who bear the greatest
responsibility for outrages committed against
Timorese and defendants did not get fair trials
or competent defense. A truth commission report
released in December 2005, Chega! (Enough),
emphasizes justice and reparations. The political
leadership soft peddles justice because they
believe this makes more sense and will better
serve the people. Indonesians are now being given
a chance to testify in front of the Commission of
Truth and Friendship (CTF), but concern is
widespread concern that the CTF emphasizes
reaching closure, has no judicial mandate, and
only ensures impunity for ranking perpetrators.
Indonesia and East Timorese can regain dignity
and move beyond their shared tragedy through a
process of reconciliation that is based on
justice and atonement. Germany shows this is
possible; Japan, that it is difficult and problematic if neglected.
Information, Uncertainty, and the Decision to
Secede [Note: Not specifically about Timor-Leste but references to it]
Barbara F. Walter
(2006), 60: 105-135 Cambridge University Press
Since 1980 almost half of all armed conflicts
have been fought between governments and ethnic
minority groups over self-determination, yet
surprisingly little is known about when and why
these conflicts occur. The few studies that do
exist focus on the deep injustices and structural
conditions that may cause some groups to seek
greater autonomy or independence and others not.
I argue that ethnic groups are much more
strategic than current theories allow. Ethnic
groups decide whether to challenge based in part
on whether the government has made concessions in
the past, and whether the government can be
expected to do so again in the future. Data on
all ethnic groups for the years 1940 to 2000
reveal that ethnic groups are significantly more
likely to seek self-determination if the
government has acquiesced to an earlier group of
separatists, and if the government is unlikely to
encounter additional ethnic challengers in the
future. Grievances and opportunity matter, but so
does the larger strategic environment in which
the government and its ethnic groups operate.
Tuberculosis control in conflict-affected East Timor, 1996-2004
Martins, N., Heldal, E., Sarmento, J., Araujo,
R.M., Rolandsen, E.B., Kelly, P.M.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Volume 10, Number 9, September 2006, pp. 975-981(7)
SETTING: East Timor has undergone major political
changes in the past 10 years. Tuberculosis (TB)
control has flourished, despite chronic low
tension conflict, a brief but intense period of
high-level conflict and post-conflict reconstruction.
OBJECTIVE: To assess TB control in East Timor from 1996 to 2004.
DESIGN: Data were collected from a variety of
sources. Key TB programme indicators were
analysed with reference to WHO targets to assess
the performance of the three TB control
programmes that operated during the study period.
RESULTS: Before 1999, a non-governmental TB
control programme was established in several
districts in parallel with the government TB
programme, and showed optimistic results.
External donor funds, technical assistance and
local control strategies were key components. In
1999, conflict led to complete disruption of both
programmes. In 2000, a National Tuberculosis
Control Programme (NTP) was established from the
non-governmental programme in collaboration with
other partners. The smear-positive TB case
notification rate of 108 per 100000 population is
the highest in the region and reflects high
population coverage. The cure rate of 81% is close to reaching the WHO target.
CONCLUSION: High-quality TB control has been
introduced in conflict-affected East Timor.
Further research is needed to examine Timorese
approaches to inform other, similar settings.
An isolated case of leprosy presenting in a migrant worker in Northern Ireland
S J Stafford, R R Wilson
Emergency Medicine Journal
Correspondence to: S J Stafford, Emergency
Department, Craigavon Area Hospital, 68 Lurgan
Road, Portadown, BT63 5QQ, United Kingdom;
<mailto:jillstafford at yahoo.com>jillstafford at yahoo.com
Leprosy was first recorded in 600 BC in India.
Europe saw its first cases in the fourteenth
century. The worldwide incidence is falling, but
the disease can still present in the most
unexpected places: this is a report of the first
case of leprosy presenting to an emergency
department in Northern Ireland. It is important
for physicians in both community and hospital
medicine to have a high index of suspicion for
leprosy in patients with chronic skin conditions
who were born outside the UK or other developed countries.
A 27 year old man, JG, was born in East Timor,
and had been resident in Northern Ireland for the
previous three years. He had been employed by the
same company in this time and was presently working as a welder.
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