[TimorLesteStudies] World Bank consultancy: Dili, How to Reduce Urban Violence in Fragile Situations

Bu Wilson Bu.Wilson at anu.edu.au
Wed May 6 14:47:59 EST 2009

May 5, 2009

The World Bank

Terms of Reference

Analytical Work to Support OECD Programming Note on
How to Reduce Urban Violence in Fragile Situations

Dili, Timor-Leste


In 1800, only three percent of the world's population lived in cities.
Today, over 50 percent of the world's population lives in cities. The urban
centre is exerting growing social, financial and political sovereignty. The
growth in urban violence is partly caused by the fact that the world's
explosive population growth is occurring in urban settings, primarily lower
and medium-income cities, which puts pressure on social services and
ultimately social cohesion and can also accelerate a sense of exclusion or
anomie. This is leading to a growing overlap between crime and conflict in
many urban areas in the developing world. 

The level of violence in many urban areas in the developing world is
disabling development and is blunting the effectiveness of donor aid. It is
necessary to figure out how to make cities and urban areas safer, especially
in the developing world through more effective and tailor made donor
programming. What can donors do to support mayors, municipal governments and
civil society to build a working democracy at the urban level that reduces

Context and Background

The present terms of reference detail analytical work to support a
programming note being developed by the World Bank's Conflict, Crime and
Violence (CCV) Team for the OECD's armed violence reduction working group.
In March 2009 the OECD published Armed Violence Reduction: Enabling
Development.  Among other things, this publication makes the link between
violence and urbanization and provides some signposts in helping donors and
governments to build viable response strategies. Building directly on this
work, the CCV Team will produce a programming note to support the work of
donors and the international community in reducing violence in urban
communities within fragile situations. The overall note will provide
guidance to donors on how to intervene effectively to reduce violence in
urban communities in fragile contexts, exploring the areas of interventions,
the policy engagement required and how the specific constraints of fragile
institution and instable political situation can be dealt with in this

The programming note created by the CCV Team will include two case studies
on violence reduction and prevention in urban environments: Dili,
Timor-Leste and Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

The present TOR is for the Dili case study. (The Port-au-Prince case study
has already been contracted.)

Objectives and Deliverables:

The deliverable shall be a paper of ten pages (single-spaced) or longer,
addressing the topics, below. One or more annexes may be appropriate.

1. Brief overview of the current situation of urban violence in Dili.

2. Analysis of the institutional framework, both nationally and in urban
areas, for violence reduction and prevention. This section will give an
overview of interventions in key sectors (police/justice reform, small arms
control, health, education, housing, urban design, youth development and
gender). It will describe the principle problems related to urban violence,
the broad approaches being applied to address these problems, and the
(current/apparent) results of those approaches.

3. Insights from Timor-Leste to improve effectiveness of violence prevention
programming in other fragile situations. This section will draw insights
from current interventions in Timor-Leste that can inform future donor
efforts. It will address: the role of a broad strategy that incorporates
community-level programs and entry points for this; risks that donors should
consider when intervening in fragile situations for violence reduction and
prevention; insights for improving coordination with governments, donors and
the NGO sector; and strategies for building government capacity for violence
reduction and prevention.

4. Inventory of programs on violence reduction and prevention in Dili. This
will include programs of the government, municipal actors, NGOs, and
informal community groups.


The consultant should already posses a good understanding of armed violence
prevention activities in Timor-Leste, as the timeframe is not sufficient to
conduct significant desk or field research.


The deliverables must be received by Friday, June 19, 2009. The number of
days for this consultancy is to be determined/negotiated.

If interested please contact:
Stephen C. Miller
Conflict, Crime and Violence Team
Social Development Department
The World Bank, Washington, DC  USA
smiller4 at worldbank.org

Bu Wilson
Regulatory  Institutions Network (RegNet) Research School of Pacific and
Asian Studies
College of Asia and the Pacific,
Australian National University 
Canberra   ACT   0200 

T: 02 6125 3194
F: 02 6125 1507
M: 0407 087 086
E: Bu.Wilson at anu.edu.au


ANU Cricos Provider Code - 00120C  

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