Further information of the Internet 2 initiative (fwd)

Eric Wainwright ewainwri@nla.gov.au
Wed, 16 Oct 1996 13:13:52 +1000 (EET)



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Eric Wainwright
Deputy Director-General
National Library of Australia
Phone:	(06) 262 1377
Fax:	(06) 273 1133
e.wainwright@nla.gov.au

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---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Tue, 15 Oct 1996 17:42:39 -0400 (EDT)
From: Paul Evan Peters <paul@cni.org>
To: Multiple recipients of list <cni-announce@cni.org>
Subject: Further information of the Internet 2 initiative

Dear CNI-Announce subscribers:

The "Internet 2" initiative has been much discussed and in 
the news over the last week to ten days, particularly so as 
a result of the article in the CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION 
and President Clinton's announcement in Knoxville last week.

I am pleased to attach some additional, rather more technical
information about this important initiative, prepared and made 
available by Michael Roberts, Educom V.P. and acting director 
of the Internet 2 project.

Best,

Paul

Paul Evan Peters                                           paul@cni.org
Executive Director                                     fax 202-872-0884
Coalition for Networked Information                        202-296-5098
21 Dupont Circle                                     ftp://ftp.cni.org/
Washington, DC 20036                        gopher://gopher.cni.org:70/
USA                                                 http://www.cni.org/

            General information about the Internet II Project

At a meeting in Chicago on October 1, representatives of the thirty-
four universities attending agreed unanimously to endorse the goals of the 
project, committed their institutions to finding the resources necessary
to participate in the project, and pledged initial funding to enable 
current intensive planning efforts to proceed without delay. As of
October 8, three additional charter members have joined. 

Five working committees were formed, and chairs appointed as noted below.
The committee chairs will comprise an interim steering committee while 
a permanent project organization is formed and staffed.  Gary Augustson
of Penn St. has agreed to chair the steering committee in order to maintain
good coordination with the Educom Networking and Telecommunications Task 
Force, whose steering committee he also chairs.

It was agreed that charter membership in the project will remain open for
a limited time for additional institutions who are in a position to 
commit the resources necessary for participation.

The current draft of the project charter statement and list of members is
appended. Additional informaion may be obtained from any of the
individuals listed below.

               Internet II Project working committees

Steering Committee Chair - Gary Augustson (Penn St) [jga@psu.edu]
Applications - Bill Graves (UNC), Chair  [Bill_Graves@unc.edu] 
Engineering - Greg Jackson (Chicago), Chair  [g-jackson@uchicago.edu]   
Charter and Goals - Raman Khanna (Stanford) [khanna@jessica.stanford.edu]
Organization - Stuart Lynn (UC), Chair [mslynn@ucop.edu] 
Search - Doug Van Houweling (Michigan), Chair [dvh@umich.edu] 

Project Director (Acting) - Mike Roberts (Educom) [roberts@educom.edu]

                                                       Updated 10/8/96

                             INTERNET II PROJECT

SUMMARY

Building on the tremendous success of the last ten years in generalizing 
and adapting research Internet technology to academic needs, a number of 
universities (see list at end of this document) are now joining together 
with government and industry partners to accelerate the next stage of 
Internet development in academia. The Internet II project, as it is known, 
will bring focus, energy and resources to the development of a new family 
of advanced applications to meet emerging academic requirements in 
research, teaching and learning. 

The project will address major challenges of the next generation of 
university networks.  First and most importantly, a leading edge network 
capability for the national research community will be created and
sustained. For a number of years beginning in 1987, the network services
of NSFnet were unequaled anywhere else.  But the privatization of that
network and the frequent congestion of its commercial replacement have
deprived many faculty of the network capability needed to support world
class research.  This unintended result has had a significant negative
impact on the university research community.

Second, network development efforts will be directed to enabling a new 
generation of applications that fully exploit the capabilities of broadband 
networks - media integration, interactivity, real time collaboration - to 
name a few.  This work is essential if new priorities within higher 
education for support of national research objectives, distance education, 
lifelong learning, and related efforts are to be fulfilled.

Third, the work of the Internet II project will be integrated with ongoing 
efforts to improve production Internet services for all members of the 
academic community. A major goal of the project is to rapidly transfer new 
network services and applications to all levels of educational use and to 
the broader Internet community, both nationally and internationally.

SCOPE OF INTERNET II PROJECT

The project will be conducted in phases over the next three to five years, 
with initial participation expected from fifty to one hundred universities,
a number of federal agencies, and many of the leading computer and 
telecommunications firms, including IBM, Cisco Systems, AT&T, MCI, and Sun.
The overall project technical plan and architecture is contained in a 
companion document to this statement entitled "Internet II Architecture."

In the initial project phase, end to end broadband network services will be 
established among the participating universities.  On a parallel basis, 
applications design will commence using teams of university faculty, 
researchers, and industry experts.  It is expected that within 
approximately eighteen months, "beta" versions of a number of applications 
will be in operation among the Internet II participating universities.

INTERNET II PARTNERSHIP & FUNDING ARRANGEMENTS

In most respects, the partnership and funding arrangements for the Internet 
II project will parallel those of previous joint networking efforts, of 
which the NSFnet project is a very successful example.  Industry partners 
will work with campus-based and regional university teams to create the 
advanced network services that are necessary to meet the requirements of 
broadband, networked applications.  Federal R&D agencies will provide grant 
support in their areas of program interest, such as the NSF vBNS 
meritorious high performance networking initiative.  

Funding for the Internet II project will include both financial and in kind 
services and products of various types that will be necessary for the 
project.  Since most of the project effort will occur on or near 
university campuses, it is anticipated that the majority of funding from 
government research agencies and industry partners will be in the form of 
grants to the participating universities.

      Internet II Project Charter University Members (as of 10/1/96)

University of Arizona
Arizona State University      
California State University  
Univ of California System     
Univ of California - Berkeley 
Univ of California - Davis    
Carnegie Mellon University    
Case Western Reserve          
University of Chicago         
Colorado State University     
University of Colorado        
Cornell University  
Emory University          
George Washington Univ 
Harvard University      
University of Illinois-UC     
Indiana University
University of Iowa             
MIT                           
Michigan State University      
University of Michigan        
University of Minnesota       
University of Nebraska
Northwestern University       
University of North Carolina  
Ohio State University          
Pennsylvania State University 
University of Pennsylvania     
Princeton University          
Purdue University             
Stanford University           
Vanderbilt University         
Virginia Tech                 
University of Virginia        
University of Washington      
University of Wisconsin       
Yale University               

                                                                Version 1.1
                                                                    9/16/96

                         Internet II Architecture

INTRODUCTION

This technical overview of the proposed architecture for the Internet II 
project was created by a working group composed of Scott Bradner (Harvard 
University), Scott Brim (Cornell University), Steve Corbato (Univ of 
Washington), Russ Hobby (Univ of Calif - Davis), and David Wasley (Univ of 
California System), with contributions from many other individuals, 
including in particular a presentation by Professor Larry Landweber of the 
University of Wisconsin at a workshop in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 1996.  
It is intended to be a working document and will be updated as the Internet 
II project evolves.

INTERNET II PROJECT

The Internet II project is a collaborative effort among a number of 
universities, federal R&D agencies, and private sector firms to develop a 
next generation Internet for research and education, including both 
enhanced network services as well as the multimedia applications which will 
be enabled by those services.  The work is developmental and pre-
competitive in nature.  It is is more fully described in a companion 
document to this technical overview.

OBJECTIVES

The technical objectives of Internet II include:

- Maintain a common bearer service to support new and existing applications

- Move from best effort packet delivery to a differentiated communications
   service

- Provide the capability of tailoring network service characteristics to
   meet specific applications requirements

- Achieve an advanced communications infrastructure for the Research and
   Education community

APPLICATIONS REQUIREMENTS

In a number of technical meetings and workshops over the past several 
years, faculty members and other university representatives have identified 
a set of advanced applications that will greatly enrich teaching, learning, 
collaboration and research activities.  A major impediment to the 
realization of these applications is lack of advanced communications 
services.  The broad use of distance learning will require selectable 
quality of service and efficient "one-to-many" data transport in support of 
multimedia and shared information processing.  To support world class 
research on a continuing basis, the academic community requires high 
capacity and selectable quality of service to make effective use of 
national laboratories, computational facilities and large data 
repositories. 

NETWORK SERVICES

Internet II is designed to provide a variety of services "on demand"  in
support of advanced applications.  These dynamically selectable services
will include guaranteed bounded delay, low data loss, and high capacity.
For example, in order to support delivery of advanced multimedia teaching
materials from a digital library repository to a dispersed audience of
learners, it will be necessary for the service delivery infrastructure to
support "multicast" data delivery with guaranteed upper bounds within the
transport components on delay and data loss.

New protocols to enable this functionality have already been defined and
will be deployed early in the Internet-II project. These protocols include
the IETF defined quality of service protocols such as RSVP and RTP along
with IPv6, the IETF-developed replacement for the version of IP that is in
current use on the Internet.  In addition, Internet-II will provide access
to the underlying network infrastructure for those environments that can
support that access and for those applications that can make use of
specific capabilities offered by the infrastructure.

IMPLEMENTATION

At the heart of the Internet-II design is a new technology for providing
advanced communications services.  The technology, referred to as a
GigaPOP, is a complex of technologies developed over the first decade of
the Internet integrated with new technologies developed by vendors and the
Internet Engineering community.  The Internet-II project will demonstrate
proof of concept of this new set of technologies and services so that they
can become the basis for the next generation of commercial Internet service
offerings.

The GigaPOP is the point of interconnection and service delivery between
one or more institutional members of the Internet-II development project
and one or more service providers.  Typical institutional connections will
be made via ATM or SONET services at very high bandwidth. The fundamental
advance represented by the GigaPOP architecture is dynamically acquired 
"quality of service" in support of a broad range of new applications while 
maintaining a common interoperable "bearer service". Service 
characteristics will include end-user definable capacity as well as
latency.  An essential part of the Internet-II project will be to determine
the incremental costs associated with support of differentiated classes of
service and to develop the mechanisms to collect data about the use of
these resources by individual users.

The architecture of the GigaPOP also will support service delivery to
regional or state-based not-for-profit consortia such as the Virginia
Educational Network, the Washington State K-20 network, or the combined
University of California and California State University system.  It is
envisioned that 20-30 GigaPOPs nationwide will comprise the Phase 1 
deployment.  These will be designed and managed collectively on behalf of 
the Internet-II project community.

Equipment at a GigaPOP site will include:

*  One or more very high capacity advanced function packet data
switch/routers capable of supporting at least OC-12 (622 megabit/second)
link speeds and switched data streams as well as packet data routing;

*  Switch/routers supporting Internet Protocols (both version 4 and the new
version 6), advanced routing protocols such as MOSPF, and "quality of
service" protocols such as RSVP;

*  SONET or ATM multiplexers to enable allocation of link capacity to
different services such as highly reliable IP packet delivery, experimental
testbeds for emerging protocols, or special requirements determined by new
initiatives among the Internet-II member institutions;

*  Traffic measurement and related data gathering to enable project staff
to define flow characteristics as part of the operational and performance
monitoring of the GigaPOPs.

One or more wide area communications service providers will connect to the
GigaPOPs in order to provide communications paths between the nationwide
set of GigaPOPs and between GigaPOPs and the established commercial
Internet.  Thus, participating institutions will be able to acquire a wide
variety of commercial as well as pre-competitive communications services
over a single high capacity communications link to the nearest GigaPOP
facility.  In particular, to support high performance distance learning and
remote collaboration initiatives, the GigaPOP architecture will facilitate
local interconnectivity between the higher education community and those
commercial providers offering emerging high-bandwidth home access
technologies.

The most advanced applications will require a set of communications paths
among the GigaPOPs that are engineered especially for the Internet-II
project.  It is essential that these interconnect pathways fully support
the protocols and functions noted above.  Recently, NSF has proposed an
expanded role for its vBNS infrastructure that potentially could attach as
many as 100 sites nationally to the current OC-3 backbone and could provide
a deployment platform for emerging applications in support of research and
collaboration.  It is envisioned that the vBNS, with its proposed new
capabilities, will be the initial interconnect network among the GigaPOPs.
If the vBNS should prove insufficient for the full range of Internet-II
requirements, other alternatives will be employed.

Although direct SONET pathways might be most effective in providing the
inter-GigaPOP pathways, it seems most likely that ATM-over-SONET will be
the most commonly available commercial service.  Because Internet-II will
use virtual connections within and between the GigaPOPs, a test network can
be implemented along side of the production network without having to
duplicate facilities.  This test network will be used to experiment with
new capabilities of the network itself where the production network can be
used to provide reliable service for applications.

OPERATIONS

Clearly the design of the GigaPOPs must meet the requirements of very high
reliability and availability.  Each GigaPOP site will be physically secure
and environmentally conditioned, including backup power and resistance to
damage from acts of nature.  Physically diverse fiber optic and wireless
communications paths will maximize service robustness against the unlikely
event of physical damage external to the site.  In addition, the
Internet-II infrastructure will be designed to be secure from the threats
of those who would seek to disrupt its operations.

Not all GigaPOP sites will be staffed 24 hours per day.  Instead, redundant
Network Operations Centers will monitor the operation of all equipment
remotely via both in-band and out-of-band circuits and will dispatch
problem resolution staff as needed to effect restoration of normal
services.

CONCLUSION

The Internet-II architecture has been chosen to demonstrate the
effectiveness of new technologies in providing the next generation
communications infrastructure. The success of Internet-II will allow 
higher education and research institutions to remain world leaders in the
development of advanced applications of information technology.