[LINK] Security tokens
sjenkin at canb.auug.org.au
Wed Nov 14 20:25:24 AEDT 2007
David Lochrin wrote on 14/11/07 6:53 PM:
> Many banks are issuing tokens these days. I have seen two, and both display a 6-digit number which must be entered on another screen after logging in with the usual userid and password. There's no challenge / response process, and the numbers are claimed to be non-repeating.
> Does the Link Institute know the Principles of Operation?
> Six decimal digits will encode a string of up to 19+ bits (values 0 to 1,048,575). If each device is designed to deliver a given set of (say) 10,000 numbers for each customer, then surely there is a 1% chance (10,000/1,048,575) that some random number will be valid for any randomly-chosen customer regardless of what mathematical magic is incorporated in the token.
> If malware harvests 10 userid/password values, the chance that a randomly chosen token-number will be valid for at least one is 10% according to my calculation, and for 50 userid/password values the chance that a given random token number will be valid for at least one is 39% (1-0.99**50).
> This is not impressively secure, though certainly better than nothing.. Perhaps entered token numbers are checked to see if they're within a certain range of the last one entered. which would improve matters. One wonders what the legal issues might be.
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> Link at mailman.anu.edu.au
The 6-digit key is some subset of a larger internal number.
A new number is generated every 60 seconds - it effectively a very slow
Somewhere will be a security analysis... They've been around for a 2-3
decades & in very high value targets - if they were obviously
compromised, they'd be taken-over already. i.e. the number sequence
crypto is very strong.
No two devices (should) be using the same keys & sequence.
There are two protections:
- bad guys' guess is 1 in 10^6 per 60 seconds.
- the server limits the number of authentication attempts [rate & failed
So, bad-guys have maybe 3 chances in 10^6 to break into a single
secure-id (after they've gained the id/passwd). Pretty slim.
It's way easier to hijack an established session [search for: hijack
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Steve Jenkin, Info Tech, Systems and Design Specialist.
0412 786 915 (+61 412 786 915)
PO Box 48, Kippax ACT 2615, AUSTRALIA
sjenkin at canb.auug.org.au http://members.tip.net.au/~sjenkin
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