[TimorLesteStudies] Four Recent articles

Jennifer Drysdale jenster at cres10.anu.edu.au
Mon Dec 4 12:16:26 EST 2006

Balancing justice and reconciliation in East Timor
Jeffrey Kingston
Critical Asian Studies
Volume 38, Number 3 / September 2006, pp 271 – 302

As East Timor emerges from a long Indonesian 
nightmare, it is seeking to balance the agendas 
of justice and reconciliation. The verdict on 
justice for East Timor is one of disappointment. 
The main obstacle to accountability is Indonesia, 
abetted by an international community that seeks 
its assistance in the “war on terror.” East 
Timor's leaders have emphasized reconciliation 
while promoting a healing process and good 
governance. Recent violence reveals just how 
difficult this task remains. The hybrid tribunal 
established in East Timor by the UN was once 
heralded as an important innovation in 
transitional justice, avoiding the high cost and 
lengthy proceedings of other international 
tribunals. However, the tribunal has been unable 
to hold accountable those who bear the greatest 
responsibility for outrages committed against 
Timorese and defendants did not get fair trials 
or competent defense. A truth commission report 
released in December 2005, Chega! (Enough), 
emphasizes justice and reparations. The political 
leadership soft peddles justice because they 
believe this makes more sense and will better 
serve the people. Indonesians are now being given 
a chance to testify in front of the Commission of 
Truth and Friendship (CTF), but concern is 
widespread concern that the CTF emphasizes 
reaching closure, has no judicial mandate, and 
only ensures impunity for ranking perpetrators. 
Indonesia and East Timorese can regain dignity 
and move beyond their shared tragedy through a 
process of reconciliation that is based on 
justice and atonement. Germany shows this is 
possible; Japan, that it is difficult and problematic if neglected.


Information, Uncertainty, and the Decision to 
Secede [Note: Not specifically about Timor-Leste but references to it]
Barbara F.  Walter
International Organization
(2006), 60: 105-135 Cambridge University Press

Since 1980 almost half of all armed conflicts 
have been fought between governments and ethnic 
minority groups over self-determination, yet 
surprisingly little is known about when and why 
these conflicts occur. The few studies that do 
exist focus on the deep injustices and structural 
conditions that may cause some groups to seek 
greater autonomy or independence and others not. 
I argue that ethnic groups are much more 
strategic than current theories allow. Ethnic 
groups decide whether to challenge based in part 
on whether the government has made concessions in 
the past, and whether the government can be 
expected to do so again in the future. Data on 
all ethnic groups for the years 1940 to 2000 
reveal that ethnic groups are significantly more 
likely to seek self-determination if the 
government has acquiesced to an earlier group of 
separatists, and if the government is unlikely to 
encounter additional ethnic challengers in the 
future. Grievances and opportunity matter, but so 
does the larger strategic environment in which 
the government and its ethnic groups operate.


Tuberculosis control in conflict-affected East Timor, 1996-2004
Martins, N., Heldal, E., Sarmento, J., Araujo, 
R.M., Rolandsen, E.B., Kelly, P.M.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Volume 10, Number 9, September 2006, pp. 975-981(7)

SETTING: East Timor has undergone major political 
changes in the past 10 years. Tuberculosis (TB) 
control has flourished, despite chronic low 
tension conflict, a brief but intense period of 
high-level conflict and post-conflict reconstruction.
OBJECTIVE: To assess TB control in East Timor from 1996 to 2004.
DESIGN: Data were collected from a variety of 
sources. Key TB programme indicators were 
analysed with reference to WHO targets to assess 
the performance of the three TB control 
programmes that operated during the study period.
RESULTS: Before 1999, a non-governmental TB 
control programme was established in several 
districts in parallel with the government TB 
programme, and showed optimistic results. 
External donor funds, technical assistance and 
local control strategies were key components. In 
1999, conflict led to complete disruption of both 
programmes. In 2000, a National Tuberculosis 
Control Programme (NTP) was established from the 
non-governmental programme in collaboration with 
other partners. The smear-positive TB case 
notification rate of 108 per 100000 population is 
the highest in the region and reflects high 
population coverage. The cure rate of 81% is close to reaching the WHO target.
CONCLUSION: High-quality TB control has been 
introduced in conflict-affected East Timor. 
Further research is needed to examine Timorese 
approaches to inform other, similar settings.


An isolated case of leprosy presenting in a migrant worker in Northern Ireland
S J Stafford, R R Wilson
Emergency Medicine Journal

Correspondence to: S J Stafford, Emergency 
Department, Craigavon Area Hospital, 68 Lurgan 
Road, Portadown, BT63 5QQ, United Kingdom; 
<mailto:jillstafford at yahoo.com>jillstafford at yahoo.com

Leprosy was first recorded in 600 BC in India. 
Europe saw its first cases in the fourteenth 
century. The worldwide incidence is falling, but 
the disease can still present in the most 
unexpected places: this is a report of the first 
case of leprosy presenting to an emergency 
department in Northern Ireland. It is important 
for physicians in both community and hospital 
medicine to have a high index of suspicion for 
leprosy in patients with chronic skin conditions 
who were born outside the UK or other developed countries.

A 27 year old man, JG, was born in East Timor, 
and had been resident in Northern Ireland for the 
previous three years. He had been employed by the 
same company in this time and was presently working as a welder.

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